Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of language and Literature university of Tehran

2 Associate Professor of Tehran University



In this speech, we discuss how Saadi in Golestan considered all the effective factors in establishing verbal communication (prolocutor, audience and speech) and observed the requirements of each one in its place.

He enumerates the characteristics of an eloquent theologian and advises the speaker to always keep in mind the requirements of the situation and position and speak the words appropriate to the situation.

Saadi considers the mental preparation of the audience to be as important as the eloquence of the speaker in the impact of the speech.

In Golestan he has arranged all three aspects of speech (subject, structure and tone) according to the current requirement the diversity of the subject in Golestan shows Saadi's careful attention to the divers rang of different audience and their moods.

Saadi also considers the requirements of the present in the structure of the speech and uses all the possibilities and linguistic tools such as brevity and verbosity, simile, allegory and allusion.

Saadi also considers the diversity of his audience in the choice of tone and the various tones in Golestan's text are indicative of this.

In this research, the requirement of the present in Golestan's anecdotes has been investigated and examples from Golestan has been mentioned for each of them.

A better understanding of Golestan's anecdotes can be achieved by realizing the appropriateness’ of the speech and the secondary purposed of the sentence.

This research has been done by analytical - researched method and using library resources.


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